PORTO-
FREI

Sustainable Use of Forest Biomass for Energy

A Synthesis with Focus on the Baltic and Nordic Region

von Springer-Verlag GmbH

From time immemorial, firewood has been a very important source of energy for mankind. Later in history, wood for energy decreased its importance because of other more convenient and cheaper sources, mainly fossil fuels. Today, focus is again on use of forests as a producer of energy with main drivers being climate change, shortage and increasing prices of fossil fuel sources, and safety in energy supplies. However, intensive use of forest biomass is qu- tioned since fundamental ecological processes may be influenced negatively thus making up a trade-off with the benefits of using an otherwise sustainable source of energy. In this book, selected aspects of intensive use of forest b- mass for energy is treated with main focus on ecological aspects like maintenance of soil fertility, recycling of the combustion ash, inf- ence on biodiversity and pests, and economical aspects both at forest owners level and for society. Another focus point is the implemen- tion of this knowledge into decision support, recommendations and guidelines. The geographical scope is mainly the Nordic and Baltic region. The EU-financed project "Wood for Energy, - a contribution to the development of sustainable forest Management" (WOOD-EN- 1 MAN) , make up the frame for the book. Seven partners participated in the project: Forest & Landscape Denmark, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Latvian State Forestry Research Institute, and Estonian University of Life Sciences with Forest & Landscape Denmark as coordinator.

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Produktbeschreibung

From time immemorial, firewood has been a very important source of energy for mankind. Later in history, wood for energy decreased its importance because of other more convenient and cheaper sources, mainly fossil fuels. Today, focus is again on use of forests as a producer of energy with main drivers being climate change, shortage and increasing prices of fossil fuel sources, and safety in energy supplies. However, intensive use of forest biomass is qu- tioned since fundamental ecological processes may be influenced negatively thus making up a trade-off with the benefits of using an otherwise sustainable source of energy. In this book, selected aspects of intensive use of forest b- mass for energy is treated with main focus on ecological aspects like maintenance of soil fertility, recycling of the combustion ash, inf- ence on biodiversity and pests, and economical aspects both at forest owners level and for society. Another focus point is the implemen- tion of this knowledge into decision support, recommendations and guidelines. The geographical scope is mainly the Nordic and Baltic region. The EU-financed project "Wood for Energy, - a contribution to the development of sustainable forest Management" (WOOD-EN- 1 MAN) , make up the frame for the book. Seven partners participated in the project: Forest & Landscape Denmark, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Latvian State Forestry Research Institute, and Estonian University of Life Sciences with Forest & Landscape Denmark as coordinator. 

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Preface.- List of Contributors.- 1. Introduction to Sustainable Utilisation of
Forest Energy. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Energy policy. 1.3 Sustainable development
and forest policy. 1.4 The WOOD-EN-MAN project. 1.5 References; A. Lunnan et
al.- 2. Forest Energy Resources and Potentials. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Natural
conditions. 2.3 Types of forest bioenergy. 2.3.1 Forest types. 2.3.2 Differences
among tree species. 2.3.3 Physical properties. 2.4 Present use of forest biomass
for energy. 2.4.1 Firewood. 2.4.2 Primary residues. 2.4.3 Secondary residues.
2.5 Estimation of woodfuel potential. 2.5.1 Net annual increment, fellings, and
roundwood balance. 2.5.2 Residues from fellings and roundwood balance. 2.6
References; D. Röser et al.- 3. Effects of Very Intensive Forest Biomass
Harvesting on Short and Long Term Site Productivity. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2
Nutrient fluxes to and from forest ecosystems. 3.2.1 Deposition. 3.2.2 Leaching.
3.2.3 Nutrient removals in forest biomass harvesting. 3.2.4 The soil as a source
and a store of nutrients. 3.3 Assessment of long term productivity consequences
of very intensive harvesting. 3.4 Case studies - examples of assessments of
vulnerability and compensation recommendations. 3.5 Synthesis and nutrient
compensation recommendations. 3.6 References; K. Raulund-Rasmussen et al.- 4.
Wood Ash Recycling - Possibilities and Risks. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Wood ash
properties. 4.2.1 Wood ash composition and quality. 4.2.2 Contamination risks.
4.2.3 Pre-conditioning before recycling. 4.3 Effects of wood ash application on
soils. 4.3.1 Soil acidity changes. 4.3.2 Effects on microbiological processes in
the soil. 4.4 Effects of wood ash application on trees. 4.4.1 Mineral soils.
4.4.2 Peat soils. 4.4.3 Tree physiology, morphology and biochemical status.
4.4.4 Effects on fine root growth, mycorrhiza and vitality. 4.5 Effects of wood
ash application onground and understorey vegetation. 4.5.1 Species composition.
4.6 History, current use and regulation of ash recycling. 4.7 Recommended doses
and regulations. 4.8 References; E. Karltun et al.- 5. Insect Pests and Forest
Biomass for Energy. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Pest species. 5.2.1 The spruce bark
beetle. 5.2.2 Pityogenes chalcographus. 5.2.3 The pine shoot beetles. 5.2.4 The
pine weevil. 5.3 Risk for tree mortality in relation to insect density and tree
vigour. 5.4 Insect reproduction in forest fuel. 5.5 Influence on regional
population densities. 5.6 Risk for damage close to forest fuel piles. 5.7
Legislation. 5.8 Conclusions. 5.9 Management recommendations from an insect pest
perspective. 5.10 References; L.M. Schroeder.- 6. The Effects of Forest Biomass
Harvesting on Biodiversity. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Potential problems for
biodiversity due to forest biomass harvesting. 6.3 Organisms that may be
affected by bioenergy use. 6.3.1 Wood living organisms. 6.3.2 Organisms
dependent on piles of logging residue. 6.4 Associations with different types of
wood. 6.4.1 Tree species. 6.4.2 Sun exposure. 6.4.3 Diameters. 6.4.4 Decay
stages. 6.4.5 Tree part. 6.5 Dispersal of saproxylic organisms. 6.6 Risks for
species loss. 6.6.1 Processes that create dead wood in natural and managed
forests. 6.6.2 Risks of species loss due to degree of sun exposure. 6.6.3 Risk
of species loss due to tree species associations. 6.7 Trapping of insects in
piles of logging residues. 6.8 Management recommendations. 6.8.1 Extraction of
logging residues. 6.8.2 Storage of logging residues in the forest. 6.9
References; M. Jonsell.- 7. Review of Recommendations for Forest Energy
Harvesting and Wood Ash Recycling. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Environmental aspects.
7.2.1 Soil nutrient fertility. 7.2.2 Soil organic matter and carbon storage.
7.2.3 Wood ash recycling and other nutrient compensation. 7.2.4 Hydrology and
water 

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Springer-Verlag GmbH

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Produktdetails

Medium: eBook
Format: PDF
Kopierschutz: PERSONALISIERTES WASSERZEICHEN
Seiten: xiv, 261
Sprache: Englisch
Erschienen: März 2008
Auflage: 2008
ISBN-10: 1402050542
ISBN-13: 9781402050541

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P_ABB: Bibliographie
Einband: PDF
Auflage: 2008
Sprache: Englisch
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