This book includes a selection of refereed papers presented at the "Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (OR2016)," which took place at the Helmut-Schmidt-Universität / Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Germany, Aug. 30 - Sept. 2, 2016. Over 700 practitioners and academics from mathematics, computer science, business/economics, and related fields attended the conference. The scientific program included around 475 presentations on the theme Analytical Decision Making, focusing on the process of researching complex decision problems and devising effective solution methods towards better decisions. The book presents papers discussing classical mathematical optimization, statistics and simulation techniques. Such approaches are complemented by computer science methods and tools for the processing of data and the design and implementation of information systems. The book also examines recent advances in information technology, which allow big data volumes to be treated and enable real-time predictive and prescriptive business analytics to drive decisions and actions. Further, it includes problems modeled and treated under consideration of uncertainty, risk management, behavioral issues, and strategic decision situations.